Immigration trends and statistics

TURKISH REPORT

I.  IMMIGRATION FROM TURKEY TO GERMANY IN A SHORT TIME

Immigration from Turkey to Germany started in 1961 after the Treaty of Taking Work Power was signed.  Initially immigration from Turkey slow; however,  it accelerated in 1963 when Turkey and the European Economic Community signed the Partnership Treaty.  During this time (1960-1970), Turkey encouraged sending workers abroad.  One reason for this was Turkey wanted to spur export-led growth because the Turkish economy was experienceing a poor balance of payments.

The Taking Work Power treaty ended in 1973.  The following year, immigration in the form of family reunification was initiated.  Statistics indicate 6800 Turkish Citizens lived in the Federal Republic of Germany in 1961.  The number exceeded one million in 1975 and reached 3,5 million by 2004.  Today, immigration from Turkey to the Federal Republic of Germany and other European countries occures mostly by marriage.

II-IMMIGRATION TO THE OTHER COUNTRIES FROM TURKEY

Turkish immigration to EU member states remains today.  After EU labor restrictions are further reduced in the future, there will likely be increased immigration from Turkey to EU member nations.  It is difficult to estimate the type and amount of immigration flow.  One advantage of immigration is that it allows the economies of aging EU states to continue to grow.  However, uncontrolled immigration may cause problems in the labor market if distributed inappropriately.  Econometrical models on immigration indicate the historical distribution of immigrants to EU member states is irregular at both the national and regional levels.

III-DEMOGRAPHIC DATA RELATED TO TURKISH PEOPLE LIVING IN THE EUROPEAN UNION

Today 3,9 million Turkish immigrants live within the borders of the EU.  If we include the 150,000 Turkish origin living in Greece and those of Turkish origin living in Bulgaria and Romania, the number comes close to 5 million.  In short, Turkish peoples comprise the most populous immigrant community in the EU.  One in six foreiners in the EU and one in four foreigners coming out of the EU has a passport of the Turkish Republic.  An important consideration when observing these numbers is that of 37.1% of the 3,9 million Turkish people living in the EU are the citizens of the countries where they living.  This is because Holland, Austria, Sweden, France and the Federal Republic of Germany allow the right to citizenship by birth in the country.
Since immigration was fomalized over 45 years ago in 1961, Turkish families have been an integral part of EU communities and one of the basic factors of the economical life.  Of the 3,9 million Turkish immigtants in the EU, 1,3 million are of work age.  EU countries with the largest Turkish populations include the Federal Republic of Germany (810,000), Holland (141,000) and France (130,000).

TURKISH IMMIGRANTS IN THE EUROPEN UNION

 

Table  
TURKISH IMMIGRANTS IN THE EU 
(2004)


Country

Turkish immigrants (1000)

Turkis Population RATE in the EU (%)

Belgium

114

2,9

Denmark

57

1,5

Germany

2.640

67,6

France

380

9,7

Holland

352

9,0

Austria

210

5,4

Sweden

40

1,0

Great Britain

80

2,0

Other EU countries

30

0,8

EU in total

3.903

100

References: Eurostat: EU Countries statistical offices

Turkey Researches Center Foundation.

The mother tongue of the Turkish people living in Germany is Turkish. However, it is obvious that Turkish children of immigrant families cannot learn Turkish and have problems in learning  German.  As a result of this situation there occured an accent which is the mixture of Turkish and some German words and it is called  German-Turkish.

The reason of this situation is “growing up in a different culture” and “family”, moreover, the lack of Turkish education at schools. In some primary and secondry schools Turkish education is given one or two hours a week, on the other hand this time cannot be compared with the children who are studying and learning Turkish at school in Turkey. The children who cannot study Turkish in Germany, cannot write what they are trying to say in Turkish. That’s why they pronounce “Sch” for the place of  “ş”, “s” for the place of  “z” that means they tend to use German letters. The reason of why these children have inadequate German (i.e.only street German) is that they have less integration and weak social relations with the German people and  Turkish TV programmes are in almost all homes of Turkish people. Furthermore, wide range of modern technological communication devices like (TV, Playstation, mobiles, etc.) strengthen the cultural problems.

Some information addresses:

http://www.tcberlinbe.de/tr/calisma/gockanunucevirisi30.03.2005pdf http://www.turkfederasyon.com/dokuman-resimşeri/gocyasasi.pdf
http://www.yesilkart.de-modules.php?name=Content&pa=showpage&pid=55